Diversity Today in the NFL and the Dallas Cowboys

Topics such as sports, football, and the Cowboys are easy to have with almost anyone. Even if you vehemently disagree on major issues it’s enjoyable to have these conversations with perfect strangers. But when the topic of race is broached, people tend to act quite differently. Some will grow defensive, others aggressive, and still others may shut up completely. No matter who you are it’s a topic that will stir some amount of emotion. In 2013 race in sports is an important issue for the NFL, the Dallas Cowboys themselves, and fans everywhere. While the conversation and the inevitable disagreements feel uncomfortable, they are still an important part of the process and necessary for the betterment of the NFL.

Nov 1, 2012; San Diego CA, USA; Kansas City Chiefs coach Romeo Crennel reacts during the game against the San Diego Chargers at Qualcomm Stadium. Mandatory Credit: Kirby Lee/Image of Sport-USA TODAY Sports

In 2013 there were eight head coaching vacancies in the NFL. All eight vacancies were filled by white coaches. Last year? There were seven openings. Six were filled by white coaches. The one minority head coach hired in 2012 was Romeo Crennel and he has already been fired. Fired after only one season. Does this mean the NFL, its owners, its executives, its general managers, are all racist?

Of course not. In fact probably none of them are. It merely illustrates the disparity that exists for head coaches in big money sports (NCAA and professional) as it relates to other populations.

The Rooney Rule, the NFL’s version of Affirmative Action, was created in 2003. Its purpose was not to force teams to hire a certain number of minorities but rather make teams interview minorities. This would theoretically give the minority applicant a chance to impress in an opportunity they may not have received otherwise. By 2006 the percentage of African American head coaches jumped from 6% (pre-Rooney Rule) to 22%. Recently those numbers have dropped back to a startling level. With the firing of Lovie Smith and Romeo Crennel, only four minorities will start the 2013 season as head coaches. That’s the fewest number since the Rooney Rule was first instituted.

The Dallas Cowboys have had eight head coaches, all of which have been white. Some of those coaches have been good while some have been bad. It’s pretty absurd to think Jerry Jones hired any one of them because of skin color. Whether it’s Jerry or Stephen running the team, there is no reason to think they will pass over a minority head coach if he’s the right man for the job. Last year the Cowboys had four minority coaches on the staff. That counted for about a quarter of the Cowboy’s coaching staff. Sadly some of the collateral damage of Jerry’s “big changes” included the firing of Skip Pete and now most likely Brian Baker as the Cowboys make room for Rod Marinelli. That brings the Cowboys back down to 2 minority coaches – good for only 13% of the coaching staff listed on their website.

According to the NFL, the league had a total of 199 minority coaches in 2012. Divide the 199 by the number of NFL teams (199/32) and you average around 6 minority coaches per coaching staff. With a total of 610 coaches in the NFL you can see 32.6% of all coaches are minorities. These numbers fall comfortably between US census demographics and NFL player demographics. No Rooney Rule proceeds over the interviewing of minority assistants but still, diversity seems to be thriving regardless. The 32.6% minority coaches from last year far exceed the 5% of minorities in 1980.

Then what is the problem?

Nov 13, 2011; Indianapolis, IN, USA; Indianapolis Colts coach Jim Caldwell during the game against the Jacksonville Jaguars at Lucas Oil Stadium. Jacksonville defeats Indianapolis 17-3. Mandatory Credit: Brian Spurlock-USA TODAY Sports

The NFL thinks it’s the coordinator positions that are causing the rift. Successful play-callers are most likely to receive future head coaching opportunities but an overwhelming majority of those coordinators are white. Are you aware Pep Hamilton and Jim Caldwell are the only minority offensive coordinator/play-callers? If offensive coordinators are the most sought-after pool of candidates teams are looking through, then it’s no wonder few minority coaches have been made head coaches. This says to some that owners and GM’s are hiring the best person for the job after all. The main problem is the lack of diversity in the coordinator positions (primarily the offensive side). If the minority coordinators were also 32.6% (the same as the assistant coach demographics), owners and GM’s would have more qualified candidates to choose from for head coaching positions. At least that is what the NFL is thinking as they plan to expand the Rooney Rule to the coordinator positions.

The Rooney Rule is celebrating its tenth anniversary this season. It currently requires teams to interview at least 1 minority candidate for head coaching and executive vacancies. It seemed to have worked in 2006, but in 2013 the NFL is back to where it started. Many questions can be asked to identify a cause. Is the Rooney Rule working? Is the Rooney Rule a good thing even if it was effective? Do the Ends justify the Means? Can people be trusted to hire simply the best person for the job? Should it be expanded to NFL coordinators and NCAA coaching? What are the Cowboys doing to get ahead rather than fall behind? I can’t even begin to answer those questions but asking them seems like a step in the right direction.

Topics: Dallas Cowboys, NFL, NFL Head Coach, Rooney Rule

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  • http://www.facebook.com/ivan.castro.71619533 Ivan Castro

    Interesting, but where are the Hispanic players (some) an coaches (only know of one). Of course it is difficult for a Hispanic to get recognition when the announcers, and I’m sure football executives, don’t even pronounce their names right.

  • Jbbravo

    I think it is stupid and just shows how messed up this country is now. It use to be you worked your butt of to be better. Now people cry and sue just to get what they want. The owners own the team they hire who they think is better for the job not because they are white or black. Same for the rest of the country needs to get there’s butts of the couch and stop waiting for a free handout.

  • ryan_p76

    Yeah, by the same token where are all the white cornerbacks? It’s called a meritocracy in both cases. Black culture has an affinity for sports and the athlete and some would say a natural ability for it and they excel dominating many spots on the football field. White culture has a bigger focus on education and a ‘lunchpail’ work ethic and some would add more natural ability in those areas and they excel there as well… you want the smartest, best educated and organized guy in the room in those leadership positions. Organizations only see one color… green, and they’re going to hire whoever they believe will lead them to wins and ultimately profitability regardless of skin color. It sure as heck ain’t popular, but it’s the truth.

    • KingTutankhaten

      Black culture has an affinity for sports and the athlete and some would
      say a natural ability for it and they excel dominating many spots on the
      football field. White culture has a bigger focus on education and a
      ‘lunchpail (sic)’ work ethic and some would add more natural ability in those
      areas and they excel there as well… you want the smartest, best
      educated and organized guy in the room in those leadership positions.

      You’re obviously not apart of the “education and a
      ‘lunchpail (sic)’ work ethic” group.

      Do your research before making racist assertions!

      Read “Kingtutankhaten” and “Love King” for help with your brain drain. ENJOY GENIUS.

      • ryan_p76

        “aren’t not apart” – lol

  • californy

    The NFL is full of nepotism the NFL should ban this. This has been banned on many of the government sector jobs to create better opportunities. I realize the NFL is not a government sector but if the NFL want to be seen as a cooperation with Equal opportunity it must create better advancement for not only minorities but for all. We had 3 Garretts, we had 2 Phillips 2 years ago. The Redskin has to Shanaghan. Some of the better minority player like Warren Moon and Jim Plunket are no where to be found on NFL sideline. Money has away protected their own interest. There was nothing in JG background that showed he was HC material, he was never a HC at any level whether it was HS, College or the NFL yet he got the job. But somehow just because JJ had a prior relationship with his dad in past year that seem to make him qualified. JJ may be the most experience GM in the NFL but he hardly the most qualified to do a good job.; There more here that meet the eye, thing the NFL are not willing to discuss.

    I dont know how many NFL team have GM who are blacks but the one that are in their are going a good Job at Ravens, & Detroit . Im not sure whether Houston has one, but who ever he is he doing a good job as well.

  • californy

    Nice Article Reid, race issue are still big issue in America, thanks for having the courage to put it out there realizing that America in many ways are still way divided. My family is very multicultural with my background coming from Brazil and Europe. I guess my background has taught me to be more acceptable to different cultural differences

  • juz sayin

    The Cowboys should have got Lovie!

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Love-King/100001463685485 Love King

    Space Science Pioneers:

    Walter S. McAfee
    In
    1946, as a mathematician for the U.S. Army’s Project Diana team at Camp
    Evans Signal Laboratory in Wall Township, Mr. McAfee ushered in the
    dawn of the space age.
    On January 10, 1946, the signal was sent by Dr. McAfee which began the preparation of sending humans beings to the Moon.
    Project
    Diana aimed to prove that a high frequency radio signal could pierce
    the ionosphere by bouncing a radio wave off the Moon, he became the
    first and only human being to calculate the speed of the Moon.
    These
    calculations were a vital step in space exploration because, it
    confirmed that communication was possible across the vast distances of
    outer space for the first time.
    The Moon’s speed varies by 750 mph (1,200 kph) from the Earth’s speed of rotation.
    In 1956, he received a Secretary of the Army Fellowship presented by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
    In
    1961, he was awarded the first prestigious U.S. Army Research and
    Development Achievement Award for his studies vital to the national
    defense in connection with missile guidance systems and communication
    links.
    He developed a mathematical formula that relates raw data from high altitude nuclear detonations with time varying phenomena.

    Katherine Johnson
    She is one of only a very few individuals who’s been named a “human computer”.
    In
    1959, she accurately calculated the trajectory of the Mercury-Restone
    Launch Vehicle, which was the first human sub-orbital spaceflight
    program in the United States of America.
    In 1961, she also accurately calculated the launch window for the Project Mercury mission.
    This determined when a particular launch vehicle can take flight.
    In
    1962, when NASA decided to use computers for the first time to
    calculate the human spaceflight mission Mercury-Atlas 6 to orbit around
    the Earth, officials called on Ms. Johnson to verify the computer’s
    accuracy. This was the first successful attempt by NASA to place an
    astronaut into orbit.
    In 1969, she calculated the trajectory of Apollo II, this marked the first spaceflight that landed humans on the Moon.
    From 1969-1972, she calculated the trajectory of the Apollo Lunar Module that also landed on the Moon.
    Later in her career, she worked on the Space Shuttle Program, the Earth Resources Satellite, and on plans for a mission to Mars.

    Robert Shurney
    In 1967, he worked on weight distribution for the Saturn V Rocket.
    From 1967-1973, the Saturn V Rocket was vital to the goals of sending humans to the Moon and returning to Earth safely.
    In 1971, he designed the tires for the Lunar Roving Vehicle, aka the “moon [sic] buggy” during the Apollo 15 mission.
    These tires were light enough that one could move across the Moon’s surface without bogging down in the thin soil.
    In
    that same year, his design proved to be a success when two astronauts
    became the first to drive a vehicle on the Moon. The rover was used on
    the final two Apollo missions 16 and 17.
    Later in his career, he designed the waste collection system used for space missions at Skylab.
    Dr. Shurney has participated in all Apollo flight missions in some capacity.

    George R. Carruthers
    In
    1969, he received a patent for inventing the first Moon-based
    observatory called the Image Converter for Detecting Electromagnetic
    Especially in Short Wave Lengths 3478216, aka the “Far-Ultraviolet
    Camera/Spectrograph”, which was carried to the Moon by Apollo 16
    astronauts in 1972.
    In 2003, he was inducted into the National
    Inventors Hall of Fame for his Image Converter for Detecting
    Electromagnetic Especially in Short Wave Lengths.
    This was evidence that plants are not the only source of the Earth’s oxygen.
    Patent
    Quote: “This invention relates to a system for detecting radiation in
    the far ultra-violet region by use of a windowless tube with a solid
    photocathode and an internal mirror for converting the radiation to
    visible light.”
    In 1970, he made the first examination of molecular hydrogen in space.
    The
    camera was positioned on the Moon’s surface and allowed researchers to
    examine the Earth’s atmosphere, including possible new ways to control
    air pollution. His camera allowed us to take readings of and understand
    objects and elements in space that are unrecognizable to the naked eye.
    In 1972, he was awarded the Exceptional Achievement Award Medal by NASA for his work on the Apollo 16 project.
    In 1974, a 2nd version of his Far-Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph was used to observe the comet Kohoutek aboard the Skylab.
    In
    1986, one of his inventions captured an ultraviolet image of Halley’s
    Comet, which marked the first comet to be observed in detail by a
    spacecraft.
    In 1987, he was awarded the Black Engineer of the Year.
    Dr. Carruthers was issued 3 U.S. patents.

    William Harwell
    In
    1987, he became 1 of 2 individuals who received a patent for
    co-inventing the Apparatus and Method of Capturing and Orbiting
    Spacecraft 4664344.
    This invention is a method and supporting
    apparatus for autonomously capturing, servicing, and deorbiting a
    free-flying spacecraft (i.e. satellites) using robotics.
    This device
    comprises of four major components: a toggle sub-assembly, control box
    and retractor assembly, support structure, and a grapple fixture.

    John Christian
    In 1970, he received a patent for inventing the Grease Composition for use at High Temperatures and High Speeds 3518189.
    This
    lubricant worked well under a wider temperature range than previous
    products from minus 50 to 600 degrees. The lubricants were used in
    helicopter fuel lines, astronaut’s back-pack life support systems, and
    in the four-wheel drive of the “moon [sic] buggy”.
    Mr. Christian was issued 4 U.S. patents.

    Valerie Thomas
    From 1970-1981, she served as manager of the first three Landsat Satellite Image-Processing systems.
    In 1972, Landsat became the first satellite to send images from outer space.
    In 1980, she received a patent for inventing the Illusion Transmitter 4229761.
    The
    Illusion Transmitter works just like a TV transmitter that sends
    signals through the air, the only difference is that the Illusion
    Transmitter also uses concave mirrors that images bounce off before
    being transmitted. The images from the Illusion Transmitter are received
    to devices similar to TVs. These devises convert the signals into
    pictures, like a TV does. The devises use concave mirrors to covert the
    signal into real images. These images appear in front of the screen to
    project a 3-D image.
    Her invention is currently being used for surgery and could be the next generation of the TV.
    From
    1986-1990, she served as manager of the first Wide Area Network (WAN),
    which is the Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) for NASA. SPAN became
    a major part of NASA’s science networking and today’s Internet.

    George Edward Alcorn, Jr.
    In 1984, he became 1 of 4 individuals who received a patent for co-inventing the Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer 4472728.
    An
    x-ray spectrometer assists scientists in identifying a material by
    producing an x-ray spectrum of it, allowing it to be examined visually.
    This is especially advantageous when the material is not able to be
    broken down physically.
    In 1984, he was awarded the Inventor of the
    Year by NASA’s, Goddard Space Flight Center for his methods of
    innovative use of the thermomigration of aluminum.
    Dr. Alcorn has
    more than 20 inventions and holds at least 8 U.S., and international
    patents, many of which are related to the semiconductor industry.

    Emmet Chappelle
    He has made several significant contributions in the field of medicine; philanthropy; food science; and astrochemistry.
    In 1969, he received a patent for inventing the Lyophilized Reaction Mixtures 3423290.
    *He discovered that a specific combination of chemicals caused all living organisms to emit light.
    In 2007, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his Lyophilized Reaction Mixtures.
    In
    1966, he joined the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    (NASA) at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, as a
    research chemist, and later became a remote sensing scientist studying
    natural systems to improve environmental management.
    While designing
    instruments for the Mars Viking spacecraft, he became interested in
    bioluminescence, which is warm light produced by living organisms. He
    used two chemicals from fireflies which give off light when mixed with
    adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an energy storage compound found in all
    living cells. This could provide a method of detecting life on Mars.
    In 1994, he was awarded the NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal.
    He also proved that the number of bacteria in semen can be measured by the amount of light given off by those bacteria.
    He showed how satellites can monitor luminescence levels to monitor crops (growth rates, water conditions, and harvest timing).
    Mr. Chappelle was issued 14 U.S. patents.

    Benjamin Banneker
    In
    1752, after looking at a model pocket watch, he carved the first wooden
    striking clock constructed in the U.S. (it kept precise time for more
    than 50 years).
    In 1791, he began making astronomical calculations that led him to successfully predicted an Annular Solar Eclipse in 1798.
    From 1792-1797, he predicted the first U.S. Farmers’ Almanacs on medicines, listed tides, astronomical info, and solar eclipses.
    *There
    is not enough verifiable evidence to support the claim that Mr.
    Banneker was 1 of 3 men appointed by U.S. President George Washington to
    survey the layout of the U.S. federal district, Washington, D.C., in
    1791.

    Military Pioneers:

    *Benjamin Bradley
    Born in Maryland around 1830, he was “owned” by an unidentified slaveholder in Annapolis, Maryland.
    In
    1846, he developed a model of a Steam Engine made from a piece of a
    gun-barrel, pewter, pieces of round steel, and some nearby junk.
    He
    would later sell his original model engine, and used the savings to
    develop and build a steam engine large enough to run the first
    Steam-Powered Warship.
    Around 1856, he built an engine that was
    capable of propelling the first sloop-of-war (a small sailing warship
    with a single gun deck which carried between 10 and 18 cannons) at the
    rate of 16 knots an hour.
    His engine was the first ever created that was powerful enough to run a warship.
    He
    was unable to patent his invention under United States law because
    “slaves” were not allowed to receive patents or assign them to others;
    Because “slaves” were not citizens, they were not allowed to enter into
    contracts with the government or private citizens.
    He did however sell his engine and earn enough money to purchase his freedom.

    Hermon L. Grimes
    In 1938, he received a patent for inventing the Airplane 2137486, aka the “Automatic Folding Wing Aircraft”.
    From
    1941-1945, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt used said aircrafts for
    the first time during the Pacific Theater of Operations in WWII.
    The F6F Hellcat, F7F Tigercat, and F4F Wildcat accounted for over 75% of the enemy aircrafts shot down in the pacific.

    Osie V. Combs, Jr.
    From
    1992-1995, he served as Program Manager for the Seawolf Class Attack
    Submarine Program and was responsible for the design, development, and
    construction of the Navy’s most technologically advanced submarine.
    In
    1995, he directed the team that built the first of three USS
    Seawolf-SSN-21, which are by far the most complex, heavily armed,
    deepest diving, and fastest running submarines in the world.

    Henrietta Bradberry
    As
    a housewife, she would experiment with different ideas in her kitchen
    sink, and in the process, she ended up helping America transform into a
    technology giant.
    In 1945, she received a patent for inventing the Torpedo Discharge Means 2390688, aka the “Underwater Cannon”.
    This
    marked the first submarine torpedo discharge that fired torpedoes
    under-water from either undersea installations or submarines.
    Patent
    Quote: “This invention relates to provide torpedo discharge means
    operated pneumatically and adapted to discharge torpedoes below the
    surface of a body of water, the said water craft as submarines or in
    sub-terranian [sic] forts.”
    Her invention played a vital role towards our victory of WWII.
    Ms. Bradberry was issued 2 U.S. patents.

    Nuclear Pioneers:

    Henry T. Sampson
    In 1967, he became the first African-American to receive a PhD for Nuclear Engineering in the U.S.
    In
    1971, he became 1 of 2 individuals who received a patent for
    co-inventing the Gamma-Electric Cell 3591860, which pertains to the use
    of the Nuclear Reactor.
    Patent Quote: “This invention relates to a
    gamma-electric cell and to a method of manufacturing and a method of
    using the gamma-electric cell so as to produce a high voltage output
    when the gamma-electric cell is subjected to radiation. For example, the
    gamma-electric cell of the present invention may be subjected to
    radiation from a nuclear reactor and the output of the gamma-electric
    cell may be used as a measurement of the radiation of the nuclear
    reactor. Also, since the voltage output of the gamma-electric cell is
    relatively high compared with prior art cells, the cell itself may be
    used as a subsidiary source of power so as to increase the overall
    efficiency of the nuclear reactor system.”
    The U.S. government has
    used the gamma electric cell to detect radiation from nuclear weapon
    testing underground and turned the radiation left behind into measurable
    electricity.
    Dr. Sampson was issued 3 U.S. patents.

    Lloyd Albert Quarterman
    From
    1942-1946, he was 1 of 13 African-American nuclear scientists involved
    in The Manhattan Project that helped develop the world’s first Nuclear
    Weapon.
    He, along side fellow African-American nuclear scientists J.
    Ernest Wilkins; William J. Knox; Ralph Gardner; Edward A. Russell;
    Moddie Taylor; Harold Delaney; Benjamin Scott; and Jasper Jeffries
    played a leading role in solving the riddle of splitting atoms. A second
    group at Columbia University included, George Dewitt Turner; Cecil
    Goldsburg White; Sydney Oliver Thompson; and George Warren Reid, Jr.
    In
    1946, he helped develop the world’s first Nuclear Reactor that used the
    atom splitting process in a peaceful way for the USS Nautilus while
    working for the research team at Argonne National Laboratories in
    Argonne, Illinois.
    The USS Nautilus is an atomic powered submarine, created for speed and endurance underwater.
    In 1982, the USS Nautilus became a National Historic Landmark in Groton, Connecticut.

    Medical Pioneers:

    Percy Lavon Julian
    He
    was a pioneer in the synthesis and large-scale production of human
    hormones, steroids, progesterone, and testosterone from plant compounds.
    In 1956, he received a patent for inventing the Preparation of Cortisone 2752339.
    In 1990, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his Preparation of Cortisone.
    In
    1973, he became the first African-American chemist to be inducted into
    the National Academy of Sciences, and the 2nd African-American to be
    inducted after David Blackwell respectfully.
    Dr. Julian was issued more than 130 U.S. chemical patents.

    Ben Carson
    In
    1987, he made medical history by becoming the first surgeon in world
    history to successfully separate Siamese twins (the Binder twins)
    conjoined at the back of the head.
    Operations to separate twins
    joined in this way had always resulted in the death of one or both of
    the infants. The 50-member surgical team, led by Dr. Carson, worked for
    22 hours.
    In 2008, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom from U.S. President George W. Bush.

    Patrica Bath
    She is the first African-American woman doctor to receive a patent for medical purposes.
    In 1976, she co-founded the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness in Washington, D.C.
    In
    1988, she received a patent for inventing a method using laser
    technology called the Apparatus for Ablating and Removing Cataract
    Lenses 4744360, aka the “Laserphaco Probe” to treat cataracts.
    Her
    invention improves the accuracy and results of cataract surgery. She has
    successfully restored the vision to people who have been unable to see
    for decades.
    In 2000, she received a patent for inventing a method
    using ultrasound technology called the Pulsed Ultrasound Method for
    Fragmenting/Emulsifying and Removing Cataractous Lenses 6083192.
    Patent
    Quote: “This invention relates to a method and apparatus for coupling
    ultrasound (energy) to an optical fiber combined with
    irrigation/aspiration for therapeutic purposed directed to and within a
    cataractous lens.”
    Dr. Bath was issued 4 U.S. patents.
    She also holds patents from Japan, Canada, and 5 European countries as well.

    Phil Brooks
    In 1974, he received a patent for inventing the first Disposable Syringe 3802434 in the U.S.
    Patent
    Quote: “This invention relates to a syringe that can be easily and
    conveniently transported, and is disposable upon the use thereof. The
    syringe embodying the present invention is particularly useful as a
    douching device to provide feminine hygeine [sic] wherever [sic] needed,
    or desired.”

    Dewey S. C. Sanderson
    In 1970, he received a patent for inventing the Urinalysis Machine 3522011.
    Patent
    Quote: “This invention relates to a urinalysis machine designed to
    perform automatically the various urinalysis steps which heretofore have
    been done manually.”

    Agricultural Pioneers:

    Henry Blair
    He
    is the only person in the U.S. Patent Office records to be identified
    as a “colored man”. No other inventor is identified by his or her race.
    In 1834, he received a patent for inventing the Seed-Planter x8447.
    This invention allowed farmers to plant more corn using less labor in a short amount of time.
    This marked the 2nd African-American man to receive a patent for an invention in the United States of America.
    In 1836, he received a patent for inventing the Cotton-Planter 15.
    This
    invention worked by splitting the ground with two shovel-like blades
    which were pulled along by a horse. A wheel-driven cylinder followed
    behind which dropped the seed into the newly plowed ground.
    He was an
    uneducated man that couldn’t read or write; When he filed his patent
    applications he had to sign them with an “X” because he was unable to
    write his own name.
    Mr. Blair received 2 U.S. patents.

    George Washington Carver
    In
    1897, he developed various crop rotation methods, which is the process
    of planting crops such as peanuts, sweat potatoes, soy beans, and pecans
    to enrich the soil after every cotton harvest.
    This process revolutionized southern agriculture and became one of his most famous contributions.
    In 1990, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his Crop Rotation methods.
    In 1943, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt founded the George Washington Carver National Monument in Diamond, Missouri.
    This was the first National Monument dedicated to an African-American, and the first to a non-president.
    In 1977, he was inducted into the Hall of Fame for Great Americans.
    In
    2000, he was inducted into the USDA Hall of Heroes as the “Father of
    Chemurgy”, which is the Preparation of Industrial Products from
    Agricultural Raw Material.
    In 1943, the Liberty Ship SS George Washington Carver was named in his honor.
    In 1963, the Nuclear Submarine USS George Washington Carver SSBN-656 was also named in his honor.
    Mr. Carver was issued 3 U.S. patents.

    Norbert Rillieux
    In 1843, he received a patent for inventing improvements in Sugar-Works 3237, aka the “Multiple-Effect Evaporator”.
    This innovation produced a fine white sugar from sugarcane which revolutionized the sugar industry.
    This
    apparatus improved efficiently using the heat from steam to evaporate
    water. His process for refining sugar improved the quality, safety, and
    profitability.
    In 2004, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his Sugar-Works.
    His process elevated the U.S. from a minor role in the sugar industry to a major producer.
    Mr. Rillieux was issued 2 U.S. patents.

    Food Processing Pioneer:

    Lloyd Hall
    He
    was a pioneer in the field of food chemistry, creating many of the
    preservative chemicals that are now used to keep food fresh without
    losing its flavor.
    In 1938, he became 1 of 2 individuals who received a patent for co-inventing the process of Sterilizing Foodstuffs 2107697.
    Patent
    Quote: “This present invention relates to the sterilization of
    vegetable matter of a nature which is food, or is an ingredient of food,
    for the purpose of minimizing or anihilating [sic] the content of
    bacteria or its spores, or molds an yeast, or their spores, or any other
    infestation by living things.”
    In 2004, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his Sterilizing Foodstuffs.
    Mr. Hall was issued more than 100 U.S., Britain, and Canada patents.

    Domestic Pioneers:

    Madam C. J. Walker
    In
    1905, she founded the Madam C. J. Walker Manufacturing Company that
    produced and distributed a line of hair and beauty preparations for
    black women called Madam Walker’s Wonderful Hair Grower, which was a
    scalp conditioning and healing formula.
    Her unwavering commitment to
    excellence and relentless ambition resulted in her becoming “the first
    woman [black or white] to become a millionaire by her own achievements”
    according to the Guinness Book of World Records.
    In 1993, she was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame.

    Henry Brown
    In 1886, he received a patent for inventing the Receptacle for Storing and Preserving Papers 352036, aka the “Filing Cabinet”.
    This was a fire and accident safe container made of forged metal, which could be sealed with a lock.

    Marie Van Brittan Brown and Albert L. Brown
    In
    1969, they received a patent for co-inventing the world’s first Home
    Security System Utilizing Television Surveillance 3482037.
    Patent
    Quote: “A video and audio security system for a house under control of
    an occupant thereof. The system includes a video scanning device at the
    entrance door of the house to scan a visitor outside the door, and
    includes audio intercommunication equipment inside and outside the door
    for conversing with the visitor outside the door. A lock is provided for
    the door with releasing means for the lock manually controlled by the
    occupant of the house.”

    Dennis W. Weatherby
    In 1987, while
    employed by Procter & Gamble, he became 1 of 2 individuals to
    receive a patent for co-inventing the Automatic Dishwasher Detergent
    Composition 4714562, aka “Cascade”.
    Before his invention, pigments were used in such solutions that often stained dishes and dishwasher interiors.
    He
    developed a solution that employed a category of dyes that could be
    used in products containing bleach that would give the soap a
    lemon-yellow color that would not stain dishes. This solution serves as
    the basic formula behind all of today’s lemon-scented cleaning products
    containing bleach.
    Cascade is a registered trademark of the Procter & Gamble Company.

    Harry A. Cole, Sr.
    In 1929, he invented the household cleaning product known as Pine-Sol.
    Later in that same year, he sold the product to The Clorox Company in1990.
    Pine-Sol is one of the biggest selling cleaning products in the world.

    That
    was just to name a few African-Americans that have made invaluable
    contributions to the world we live in. These extraordinary people maybe
    unknown to most but, their contributions live with us

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Love-King/100001463685485 Love King

    Industrial Pioneers:

    Elijah J. McCoy
    In
    1872, he received a patent for inventing an automatic lubricator for
    oiling the steam engines of locomotives and ships called the Improvement
    in Lubricators for Steam-Engines 130305.
    This innovation dripped oil
    onto the moving parts of locomotives keeping them constantly lubricated
    preventing frequent stops and overheating, his lubricator used steam
    pressure to pump oil wherever it was needed.
    In 2001, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his Improvement in Lubricators for Steam-Engines.
    Mr. McCoy was issued 57 U.S. patents.

    Meredith Gourdine
    He pioneered the research of “electrogasdynamics”.
    In
    1987, he received a patent for inventing the Method for Airport Fog
    Precipitation 4671805, aka the “Incineraid System”, which helps remove
    smoke from burning buildings.
    These systems clear the air by
    introducing a negative charge to airborne particles, once negatively
    charged, the particles are electromagnetically attracted to the ground,
    while its former place is taken by fresh air.
    Mr. Gourdine was issued more than 40 U.S. patents.

    Space Science Pioneers:

    Walter S. McAfee
    In
    1946, as a mathematician for the U.S. Army’s Project Diana team at Camp
    Evans Signal Laboratory in Wall Township, Mr. McAfee ushered in the
    dawn of the space age.
    On January 10, 1946, the signal was sent by Dr. McAfee which began the preparation of sending humans beings to the Moon.
    Project
    Diana aimed to prove that a high frequency radio signal could pierce
    the ionosphere by bouncing a radio wave off the Moon, he became the
    first and only human being to calculate the speed of the Moon.
    These
    calculations were a vital step in space exploration because, it
    confirmed that communication was possible across the vast distances of
    outer space for the first time.
    The Moon’s speed varies by 750 mph (1,200 kph) from the Earth’s speed of rotation.
    In 1956, he received a Secretary of the Army Fellowship presented by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
    In
    1961, he was awarded the first prestigious U.S. Army Research and
    Development Achievement Award for his studies vital to the national
    defense in connection with missile guidance systems and communication
    links.
    He developed a mathematical formula that relates raw data from high altitude nuclear detonations with time varying phenomena.

    Katherine Johnson
    She is one of only a very few individuals who’s been named a “human computer”.
    In
    1959, she accurately calculated the trajectory of the Mercury-Restone
    Launch Vehicle, which was the first human sub-orbital spaceflight
    program in the United States of America.
    In 1961, she also accurately calculated the launch window for the Project Mercury mission.
    This determined when a particular launch vehicle can take flight.
    In
    1962, when NASA decided to use computers for the first time to
    calculate the human spaceflight mission Mercury-Atlas 6 to orbit around
    the Earth, officials called on Ms. Johnson to verify the computer’s
    accuracy. This was the first successful attempt by NASA to place an
    astronaut into orbit.
    In 1969, she calculated the trajectory of Apollo II, this marked the first spaceflight that landed humans on the Moon.
    From 1969-1972, she calculated the trajectory of the Apollo Lunar Module that also landed on the Moon.
    Later in her career, she worked on the Space Shuttle Program, the Earth Resources Satellite, and on plans for a mission to Mars.

    Robert Shurney
    In 1967, he worked on weight distribution for the Saturn V Rocket.
    From 1967-1973, the Saturn V Rocket was vital to the goals of sending humans to the Moon and returning to Earth safely.
    In 1971, he designed the tires for the Lunar Roving Vehicle, aka the “moon [sic] buggy” during the Apollo 15 mission.
    These tires were light enough that one could move across the Moon’s surface without bogging down in the thin soil.
    In
    that same year, his design proved to be a success when two astronauts
    became the first to drive a vehicle on the Moon. The rover was used on
    the final two Apollo missions 16 and 17.
    Later in his career, he designed the waste collection system used for space missions at Skylab.
    Dr. Shurney has participated in all Apollo flight missions in some capacity.

    George R. Carruthers
    In
    1969, he received a patent for inventing the first Moon-based
    observatory called the Image Converter for Detecting Electromagnetic
    Especially in Short Wave Lengths 3478216, aka the “Far-Ultraviolet
    Camera/Spectrograph”, which was carried to the Moon by Apollo 16
    astronauts in 1972.
    In 2003, he was inducted into the National
    Inventors Hall of Fame for his Image Converter for Detecting
    Electromagnetic Especially in Short Wave Lengths.
    This was evidence that plants are not the only source of the Earth’s oxygen.
    Patent
    Quote: “This invention relates to a system for detecting radiation in
    the far ultra-violet region by use of a windowless tube with a solid
    photocathode and an internal mirror for converting the radiation to
    visible light.”
    In 1970, he made the first examination of molecular hydrogen in space.
    The
    camera was positioned on the Moon’s surface and allowed researchers to
    examine the Earth’s atmosphere, including possible new ways to control
    air pollution. His camera allowed us to take readings of and understand
    objects and elements in space that are unrecognizable to the naked eye.
    In 1972, he was awarded the Exceptional Achievement Award Medal by NASA for his work on the Apollo 16 project.
    In 1974, a 2nd version of his Far-Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph was used to observe the comet Kohoutek aboard the Skylab.
    In
    1986, one of his inventions captured an ultraviolet image of Halley’s
    Comet, which marked the first comet to be observed in detail by a
    spacecraft.
    In 1987, he was awarded the Black Engineer of the Year.
    Dr. Carruthers was issued 3 U.S. patents.

    William Harwell
    In
    1987, he became 1 of 2 individuals who received a patent for
    co-inventing the Apparatus and Method of Capturing and Orbiting
    Spacecraft 4664344.
    This invention is a method and supporting
    apparatus for autonomously capturing, servicing, and deorbiting a
    free-flying spacecraft (i.e. satellites) using robotics.
    This device
    comprises of four major components: a toggle sub-assembly, control box
    and retractor assembly, support structure, and a grapple fixture.

    John Christian
    In 1970, he received a patent for inventing the Grease Composition for use at High Temperatures and High Speeds 3518189.
    This
    lubricant worked well under a wider temperature range than previous
    products from minus 50 to 600 degrees. The lubricants were used in
    helicopter fuel lines, astronaut’s back-pack life support systems, and
    in the four-wheel drive of the “moon [sic] buggy”.
    Mr. Christian was issued 4 U.S. patents.

    Valerie Thomas
    From 1970-1981, she served as manager of the first three Landsat Satellite Image-Processing systems.
    In 1972, Landsat became the first satellite to send images from outer space.
    In 1980, she received a patent for inventing the Illusion Transmitter 4229761.
    The
    Illusion Transmitter works just like a TV transmitter that sends
    signals through the air, the only difference is that the Illusion
    Transmitter also uses concave mirrors that images bounce off before
    being transmitted. The images from the Illusion Transmitter are received
    to devices similar to TVs. These devises convert the signals into
    pictures, like a TV does. The devises use concave mirrors to covert the
    signal into real images. These images appear in front of the screen to
    project a 3-D image.
    Her invention is currently being used for surgery and could be the next generation of the TV.
    From
    1986-1990, she served as manager of the first Wide Area Network (WAN),
    which is the Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) for NASA. SPAN became
    a major part of NASA’s science networking and today’s Internet.

    George Edward Alcorn, Jr.
    In 1984, he became 1 of 4 individuals who received a patent for co-inventing the Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer 4472728.
    An
    x-ray spectrometer assists scientists in identifying a material by
    producing an x-ray spectrum of it, allowing it to be examined visually.
    This is especially advantageous when the material is not able to be
    broken down physically.
    In 1984, he was awarded the Inventor of the
    Year by NASA’s, Goddard Space Flight Center for his methods of
    innovative use of the thermomigration of aluminum.
    Dr. Alcorn has
    more than 20 inventions and holds at least 8 U.S., and international
    patents, many of which are related to the semiconductor industry.

    Emmet Chappelle
    He has made several significant contributions in the field of medicine; philanthropy; food science; and astrochemistry.
    In 1969, he received a patent for inventing the Lyophilized Reaction Mixtures 3423290.
    *He discovered that a specific combination of chemicals caused all living organisms to emit light.
    In 2007, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his Lyophilized Reaction Mixtures.
    In
    1966, he joined the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    (NASA) at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, as a
    research chemist, and later became a remote sensing scientist studying
    natural systems to improve environmental management.
    While designing
    instruments for the Mars Viking spacecraft, he became interested in
    bioluminescence, which is warm light produced by living organisms. He
    used two chemicals from fireflies which give off light when mixed with
    adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an energy storage compound found in all
    living cells. This could provide a method of detecting life on Mars.
    In 1994, he was awarded the NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal.
    He also proved that the number of bacteria in semen can be measured by the amount of light given off by those bacteria.
    He showed how satellites can monitor luminescence levels to monitor crops (growth rates, water conditions, and harvest timing).
    Mr. Chappelle was issued 14 U.S. patents.

    Benjamin Banneker
    In
    1752, after looking at a model pocket watch, he carved the first wooden
    striking clock constructed in the U.S. (it kept precise time for more
    than 50 years).
    In 1791, he began making astronomical calculations that led him to successfully predicted an Annular Solar Eclipse in 1798.
    From 1792-1797, he predicted the first U.S. Farmers’ Almanacs on medicines, listed tides, astronomical info, and solar eclipses.
    *There
    is not enough verifiable evidence to support the claim that Mr.
    Banneker was 1 of 3 men appointed by U.S. President George Washington to
    survey the layout of the U.S. federal district, Washington, D.C., in
    1791.

    Military Pioneers:

    *Benjamin Bradley
    Born in Maryland around 1830, he was “owned” by an unidentified slaveholder in Annapolis, Maryland.
    In
    1846, he developed a model of a Steam Engine made from a piece of a
    gun-barrel, pewter, pieces of round steel, and some nearby junk.
    He
    would later sell his original model engine, and used the savings to
    develop and build a steam engine large enough to run the first
    Steam-Powered Warship.
    Around 1856, he built an engine that was
    capable of propelling the first sloop-of-war (a small sailing warship
    with a single gun deck which carried between 10 and 18 cannons) at the
    rate of 16 knots an hour.
    His engine was the first ever created that was powerful enough to run a warship.
    He
    was unable to patent his invention under United States law because
    “slaves” were not allowed to receive patents or assign them to others;
    Because “slaves” were not citizens, they were not allowed to enter into
    contracts with the government or private citizens.
    He did however sell his engine and earn enough money to purchase his freedom.

    Hermon L. Grimes
    In 1938, he received a patent for inventing the Airplane 2137486, aka the “Automatic Folding Wing Aircraft”.
    From
    1941-1945, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt used said aircrafts for
    the first time during the Pacific Theater of Operations in WWII.
    The F6F Hellcat, F7F Tigercat, and F4F Wildcat accounted for over 75% of the enemy aircrafts shot down in the pacific.

    Osie V. Combs, Jr.
    From
    1992-1995, he served as Program Manager for the Seawolf Class Attack
    Submarine Program and was responsible for the design, development, and
    construction of the Navy’s most technologically advanced submarine.
    In
    1995, he directed the team that built the first of three USS
    Seawolf-SSN-21, which are by far the most complex, heavily armed,
    deepest diving, and fastest running submarines in the world.

    Henrietta Bradberry
    As
    a housewife, she would experiment with different ideas in her kitchen
    sink, and in the process, she ended up helping America transform into a
    technology giant.
    In 1945, she received a patent for inventing the Torpedo Discharge Means 2390688, aka the “Underwater Cannon”.
    This
    marked the first submarine torpedo discharge that fired torpedoes
    under-water from either undersea installations or submarines.
    Patent
    Quote: “This invention relates to provide torpedo discharge means
    operated pneumatically and adapted to discharge torpedoes below the
    surface of a body of water, the said water craft as submarines or in
    sub-terranian [sic] forts.”
    Her invention played a vital role towards our victory of WWII.
    Ms. Bradberry was issued 2 U.S. patents.

    Nuclear Pioneers:

    Henry T. Sampson
    In 1967, he became the first African-American to receive a PhD for Nuclear Engineering in the U.S.
    In
    1971, he became 1 of 2 individuals who received a patent for
    co-inventing the Gamma-Electric Cell 3591860, which pertains to the use
    of the Nuclear Reactor.
    Patent Quote: “This invention relates to a
    gamma-electric cell and to a method of manufacturing and a method of
    using the gamma-electric cell so as to produce a high voltage output
    when the gamma-electric cell is subjected to radiation. For example, the
    gamma-electric cell of the present invention may be subjected to
    radiation from a nuclear reactor and the output of the gamma-electric
    cell may be used as a measurement of the radiation of the nuclear
    reactor. Also, since the voltage output of the gamma-electric cell is
    relatively high compared with prior art cells, the cell itself may be
    used as a subsidiary source of power so as to increase the overall
    efficiency of the nuclear reactor system.”
    The U.S. government has
    used the gamma electric cell to detect radiation from nuclear weapon
    testing underground and turned the radiation left behind into measurable
    electricity.
    Dr. Sampson was issued 3 U.S. patents.

    Lloyd Albert Quarterman
    From
    1942-1946, he was 1 of 13 African-American nuclear scientists involved
    in The Manhattan Project that helped develop the world’s first Nuclear
    Weapon.
    He, along side fellow African-American nuclear scientists J.
    Ernest Wilkins; William J. Knox; Ralph Gardner; Edward A. Russell;
    Moddie Taylor; Harold Delaney; Benjamin Scott; and Jasper Jeffries
    played a leading role in solving the riddle of splitting atoms. A second
    group at Columbia University included, George Dewitt Turner; Cecil
    Goldsburg White; Sydney Oliver Thompson; and George Warren Reid, Jr.
    In
    1946, he helped develop the world’s first Nuclear Reactor that used the
    atom splitting process in a peaceful way for the USS Nautilus while
    working for the research team at Argonne National Laboratories in
    Argonne, Illinois.
    The USS Nautilus is an atomic powered submarine, created for speed and endurance underwater.
    In 1982, the USS Nautilus became a National Historic Landmark in Groton, Connecticut.

    Medical Pioneers:

    Percy Lavon Julian
    He
    was a pioneer in the synthesis and large-scale production of human
    hormones, steroids, progesterone, and testosterone from plant compounds.
    In 1956, he received a patent for inventing the Preparation of Cortisone 2752339.
    In 1990, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his Preparation of Cortisone.
    In
    1973, he became the first African-American chemist to be inducted into
    the National Academy of Sciences, and the 2nd African-American to be
    inducted after David Blackwell respectfully.
    Dr. Julian was issued more than 130 U.S. chemical patents.

    Ben Carson
    In
    1987, he made medical history by becoming the first surgeon in world
    history to successfully separate Siamese twins (the Binder twins)
    conjoined at the back of the head.
    Operations to separate twins
    joined in this way had always resulted in the death of one or both of
    the infants. The 50-member surgical team, led by Dr. Carson, worked for
    22 hours.
    In 2008, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom from U.S. President George W. Bush.

    Patrica Bath
    She is the first African-American woman doctor to receive a patent for medical purposes.
    In 1976, she co-founded the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness in Washington, D.C.
    In
    1988, she received a patent for inventing a method using laser
    technology called the Apparatus for Ablating and Removing Cataract
    Lenses 4744360, aka the “Laserphaco Probe” to treat cataracts.
    Her
    invention improves the accuracy and results of cataract surgery. She has
    successfully restored the vision to people who have been unable to see
    for decades.
    In 2000, she received a patent for inventing a method
    using ultrasound technology called the Pulsed Ultrasound Method for
    Fragmenting/Emulsifying and Removing Cataractous Lenses 6083192.
    Patent
    Quote: “This invention relates to a method and apparatus for coupling
    ultrasound (energy) to an optical fiber combined with
    irrigation/aspiration for therapeutic purposed directed to and within a
    cataractous lens.”
    Dr. Bath was issued 4 U.S. patents.
    She also holds patents from Japan, Canada, and 5 European countries as well.

    Phil Brooks
    In 1974, he received a patent for inventing the first Disposable Syringe 3802434 in the U.S.
    Patent
    Quote: “This invention relates to a syringe that can be easily and
    conveniently transported, and is disposable upon the use thereof. The
    syringe embodying the present invention is particularly useful as a
    douching device to provide feminine hygeine [sic] wherever [sic] needed,
    or desired.”

    Dewey S. C. Sanderson
    In 1970, he received a patent for inventing the Urinalysis Machine 3522011.
    Patent
    Quote: “This invention relates to a urinalysis machine designed to
    perform automatically the various urinalysis steps which heretofore have
    been done manually.”

    Agricultural Pioneers:

    Henry Blair
    He
    is the only person in the U.S. Patent Office records to be identified
    as a “colored man”. No other inventor is identified by his or her race.
    In 1834, he received a patent for inventing the Seed-Planter x8447.
    This invention allowed farmers to plant more corn using less labor in a short amount of time.
    This marked the 2nd African-American man to receive a patent for an invention in the United States of America.
    In 1836, he received a patent for inventing the Cotton-Planter 15.
    This
    invention worked by splitting the ground with two shovel-like blades
    which were pulled along by a horse. A wheel-driven cylinder followed
    behind which dropped the seed into the newly plowed ground.
    He was an
    uneducated man that couldn’t read or write; When he filed his patent
    applications he had to sign them with an “X” because he was unable to
    write his own name.
    Mr. Blair received 2 U.S. patents.

    George Washington Carver
    In
    1897, he developed various crop rotation methods, which is the process
    of planting crops such as peanuts, sweat potatoes, soy beans, and pecans
    to enrich the soil after every cotton harvest.
    This process revolutionized southern agriculture and became one of his most famous contributions.
    In 1990, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his Crop Rotation methods.
    In 1943, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt founded the George Washington Carver National Monument in Diamond, Missouri.
    This was the first National Monument dedicated to an African-American, and the first to a non-president.
    In 1977, he was inducted into the Hall of Fame for Great Americans.
    In
    2000, he was inducted into the USDA Hall of Heroes as the “Father of
    Chemurgy”, which is the Preparation of Industrial Products from
    Agricultural Raw Material.
    In 1943, the Liberty Ship SS George Washington Carver was named in his honor.
    In 1963, the Nuclear Submarine USS George Washington Carver SSBN-656 was also named in his honor.
    Mr. Carver was issued 3 U.S. patents.

    Norbert Rillieux
    In 1843, he received a patent for inventing improvements in Sugar-Works 3237, aka the “Multiple-Effect Evaporator”.
    This innovation produced a fine white sugar from sugarcane which revolutionized the sugar industry.
    This
    apparatus improved efficiently using the heat from steam to evaporate
    water. His process for refining sugar improved the quality, safety, and
    profitability.
    In 2004, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his Sugar-Works.
    His process elevated the U.S. from a minor role in the sugar industry to a major producer.
    Mr. Rillieux was issued 2 U.S. patents.

    Food Processing Pioneer:

    Lloyd Hall
    He
    was a pioneer in the field of food chemistry, creating many of the
    preservative chemicals that are now used to keep food fresh without
    losing its flavor.
    In 1938, he became 1 of 2 individuals who received a patent for co-inventing the process of Sterilizing Foodstuffs 2107697.
    Patent
    Quote: “This present invention relates to the sterilization of
    vegetable matter of a nature which is food, or is an ingredient of food,
    for the purpose of minimizing or anihilating [sic] the content of
    bacteria or its spores, or molds an yeast, or their spores, or any other
    infestation by living things.”
    In 2004, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his Sterilizing Foodstuffs.
    Mr. Hall was issued more than 100 U.S., Britain, and Canada patents.

    Domestic Pioneers:

    Madam C. J. Walker
    In
    1905, she founded the Madam C. J. Walker Manufacturing Company that
    produced and distributed a line of hair and beauty preparations for
    black women called Madam Walker’s Wonderful Hair Grower, which was a
    scalp conditioning and healing formula.
    Her unwavering commitment to
    excellence and relentless ambition resulted in her becoming “the first
    woman [black or white] to become a millionaire by her own achievements”
    according to the Guinness Book of World Records.
    In 1993, she was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame.

    Henry Brown
    In 1886, he received a patent for inventing the Receptacle for Storing and Preserving Papers 352036, aka the “Filing Cabinet”.
    This was a fire and accident safe container made of forged metal, which could be sealed with a lock.

    Marie Van Brittan Brown and Albert L. Brown
    In
    1969, they received a patent for co-inventing the world’s first Home
    Security System Utilizing Television Surveillance 3482037.
    Patent
    Quote: “A video and audio security system for a house under control of
    an occupant thereof. The system includes a video scanning device at the
    entrance door of the house to scan a visitor outside the door, and
    includes audio intercommunication equipment inside and outside the door
    for conversing with the visitor outside the door. A lock is provided for
    the door with releasing means for the lock manually controlled by the
    occupant of the house.”

    Dennis W. Weatherby
    In 1987, while
    employed by Procter & Gamble, he became 1 of 2 individuals to
    receive a patent for co-inventing the Automatic Dishwasher Detergent
    Composition 4714562, aka “Cascade”.
    Before his invention, pigments were used in such solutions that often stained dishes and dishwasher interiors.
    He
    developed a solution that employed a category of dyes that could be
    used in products containing bleach that would give the soap a
    lemon-yellow color that would not stain dishes. This solution serves as
    the basic formula behind all of today’s lemon-scented cleaning products
    containing bleach.
    Cascade is a registered trademark of the Procter & Gamble Company.

    Harry A. Cole, Sr.
    In 1929, he invented the household cleaning product known as Pine-Sol.
    Later in that same year, he sold the product to The Clorox Company in1990.
    Pine-Sol is one of the biggest selling cleaning products in the world.

    That
    was just to name a few African-Americans that have made invaluable
    contributions to the world we live in. These extraordinary people maybe
    unknown to most but, their contributions live with us

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Love-King/100001463685485 Love King

    Shirley Ann Jackson
    In 1973, she became the first African-American women to receive a PhD from MIT.
    From
    1976-1991, while working for AT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill,
    NJ., she helped develop the Portable Fax, Touch Tone Telephone, Solar
    Cell, and Fiber Optics Cables used to provide clarity in overseas
    telephone calls.
    She also helped develop Caller ID and Call waiting (information courtesy of Famous Black Inventors).
    In
    1991, she became the 18th President of the Rensselaer Polytechnic
    Institute, which marked the first woman and African-American to hold
    this position.
    In 1998, she was inducted into the Women’s Hall of Fame for her significant contributions as a distinguished scientist.
    From
    1995-1999, she became the first women and African-American to serve as
    Chairwoman of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), appointed by
    U.S. President William J. Clinton.
    In 2000, she was inducted into
    the Women in Technology Foundation Hall of Fame, which recognizes women
    technologists and scientists whose achievements are exceptional.
    In
    the same year, she was awarded the Golden Torch Award, for Lifetime
    Achievement in Academia from the National Society of Black Engineers.
    In 2001, she was awarded the Black Engineer of the Year, becoming the first woman to receive this award.
    In
    the same year, she was inducted into the U.S.National Academy of
    Engineering, becoming the first African-American woman to be selected.
    Dr. Jackson holds 49 honorary degrees.

    Thomas Mensah
    He is 1 of 4 original innovators and developers of Fiber Optics Technology in the U.S.
    In
    1985, while serving as a Chemical Engineer on the development of the
    High Speed Fiber Optics Coating Process at Corning Glass Works Sullivan
    Park Research and Development Center in New York, where fiber optics was
    invented, he made history when he became 1 of 2 individuals who
    received a patent for co-inventing the Method and Apparatus for Coating
    Optical Fibers 4531959.
    This increased the manufacturing speed of
    fiber optics from 2 meters a second to 20 meters a second, while
    decreasing fiber optics manufacturing costs to $1.00 a meter to $.10
    cents a meter, which was the same price as copper, thus, making the
    copper wire cables obsolete.
    Patent Quote: “This invention relates to
    a method and apparatus for coating an elongated filament. More
    particularly, it relates to a method and apparatus for applying to an
    optical waveguide fiber a concentric coating having a low incidence of
    bubbles.”
    This provided the much needed bandwidth which transformed
    the telecommunication and computer/ Internet platform that placed
    Corning Glass Works and the U.S. in a leading role in fiber optics
    manufacturing.
    Dr. Mensah was issued 4 U.S. patents for this technology.
    In
    1985, he was awarded the Corning Glass Works Individual Outstanding
    Contributor Award for Innovation in Fiber Optics for his contributions
    to the fiber optics manufacturing process.
    In 1986, he directed the
    team that developed the Guidance System for Smart Weapons using fiber
    optics while working for AT&T Bell Laboratories in Georgia.
    This marked the first Non-Line of Sight Precision-guided munition, which is also referred to as Smart Weapons.
    In
    the fiber optic guided missile technology, a small camera inserted into
    the nose of the missile can send images to the pilot who can lock and
    fire onto a target with extreme accuracy and precision at Mach 1, which
    represents the speed of sound.
    In 1988, he was awarded the AT&T Bell Laboratories High Performance Award.
    Dr. Mensah was issued 3 U.S. patents in the field of fiber optic guided missile FOG-M technology.
    His
    fiber optics innovations played a role in the successful use of new
    missile technology that helped the U.S. to a quick victory in the 1991
    Gulf War.
    In 1991, he became 1 of 4 individuals to receive a patent for co-inventing the Guided Vehicle System 5035169.
    Patent
    Quote: “This invention relates to an [sic] a guided vehicle system.
    More particularly, this invention relates to a guided vehicle system
    which includes an optical fiber package comprising a mass of
    convolutions of optical fiber which are wound on a bobbin and adhered
    together.”
    Dr. Mensah was issued 7 U.S. patents in the field of fiber optics technology in only 6 years.
    Dr. Mensah is an immigrant from Ghana in Africa.

    James E. Maceo West
    In
    1962, while working for Bell Laboratories, he became 1 of 2 individuals
    who received a patent for co-inventing the Electroacoustic Transducer
    3118022, aka the “Electret Microphone”.
    The transducer is thin sheets
    of polymer electret film that are metal-coated on one side to form the
    membrane of the movable plate capacitor that converts sound to
    electrical signals with high fidelity. Because of its high performance,
    accuracy, reliability, low cost, small size, and light weight.
    This
    technology is used in over 90% of all microphones, telephones, hearing
    aids, camcorders, and multimedia computers used today.
    In 1999, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his Electroacoustic Transducer.
    In
    1989, he was named an IEEE Fellow for his “contributions to electric
    transducers and the understanding of charge-storage phenomena in
    polymers.”
    In 2006, he was awarded the National Medal of Technology
    and Innovation, the nation’s highest honor for innovators by U.S.
    President George W. Bush.
    Mr. West was issued 47 U.S. patents and more than 200 international patents.

    Joycelyn Simpson
    In
    2002, she became 1 of 2 individuals who co-invented a Thermally Stable,
    Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Polymeric Substrates and Method Relating
    Thereto 6379809, aka “T.H.U.N.D.E.R” (THin Layer UNimorph Ferroelectric
    DrivER and Sensor).
    Piezoelectric materials generate mechanical
    movement when subjected to an electric current and generate electrical
    charge in response to mechanical stress.
    This material is superior in
    several ways to those that are currently commercially available. It is
    tougher, should allow lower voltage operation, has far greater
    displacement, has greater mechanical load capacity, can be easily
    produced at a relatively low cost, and lends itself well to mass
    production.
    Thunder’s applications include electronics, optics,
    jitter (irregular motion) suppression, noise cancellation, pumps,
    valves, and a variety of other fields. Its low-voltage characteristics
    allow it to be used for the first time in internal biomedical
    applications like heart pumps.
    An array of their new durable
    piezoelectric polymers, covering five square miles subjected to pressure
    fluctuations generated by wind or ocean waves, could conceivably supply
    electricity for 7.5 million people at a cost of only 2 to 4 cents per
    kilowatt hour.
    She is a NASA engineer at Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA.
    Ms. Simpson was issued 11 U.S. patents.

    Mechanical Pioneers:

    Frederick McKinley Jones
    In 1950, he received a patent for inventing an Air Conditioning Unit D159209, aka the “Thermo King”.
    He later received patents for it to be applied to aircraft’s, trains, and ships.
    His cooling units were important during WWII for preserving blood, medicine, and food at army hospitals and open battlefields.
    In 2007, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his Air Conditioning Unit.
    In 1944, he became the first African-American to be inducted into the American Society of Refrigeration Engineers.
    In
    1991, he also became the first African-American awarded the National
    Medal of Technology and Innovation, the nation’s highest honor for
    innovators by U.S. President George H. W. Bush.
    Mr. Jones was issued 61 U.S. patents.

    Garrett Morgan
    In 1914, he received a patent for inventing improvements for a Breathing Device 1113675, aka a “Gas Mask”.
    In
    the same year, after some refining of the device, he was awarded the
    first Grand Prize Gold Medal at the 2nd International Exposition of
    Sanitation and Safety in New York City.
    When his breathing device
    from the exhibit was used by New York firemen to rescue victims from a
    terrible subway disaster, fire departments in large cities in Ohio,
    Pennsylvania, and New York began using his breathing device.
    In 1916,
    he made national news after him, his brother Frank, and two others used
    his breathing device to rescue several men trapped during an explosion
    in an underground tunnel beneath Lake Erie, in Cleveland Waterworks.
    He was awarded a Gold Medal from the International Association of Fire Chiefs for his heroic actions.
    In 1923, he received a patent for inventing improvements to the Traffic Signal 1475024, aka the “Three-Position Traffic Signal”.
    His traffic signal was manually operated and used a mechanical linkage.
    While
    there were other inventors who allegedly experimented and even marketed
    their own traffic signals, he was the first to apply for and receive a
    U.S. patent for a three-position traffic signal (information courtesy of
    the U.S. Department of Transportation Office).
    He later had this invention patented in Britain and Canada as well.
    In 1963, shortly after his death, he was cited by the U.S. government for inventing the first three-position traffic signal.
    In 2005, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his Breathing Device and Traffic Signal.
    Mr. Morgan was issued 2 U.S. patents.

    Andrew Jackson Beard
    In 1897, he received a patent for inventing improvements to the Car-Coupling 594059, aka “Jenny Coupler” for railroad safety.
    Patent
    Quote: “My invention relates to improvements in that class of
    car-couplings in which horizontal jaws engage each other to connect the
    cars; and the objects of my improvements are, first, to provide a
    car-coupler of a simple and cheap form of construction, the coupler
    assembled in parts adapted to replace any of the pieces as desired;
    second, to provide a car-coupler having the head and shank constructed
    in separate parts and pivotally connected by a pin, by which a new head
    or shank can readily be attached to replace a broken part; third, to
    provide an automatic car-coupling having a head and side jaw adapted to
    open and close in opposite directions to couple or uncouple the cars.”
    He later sold the jenny coupler patent rights to a New York firm for $50,000.
    In 2006, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his Car-Coupling.
    Mr. Beard was issued 5 U.S. patents.

    David Crostwait
    During
    the 1920s-1930s he received multiple patents for inventing improvements
    to the Boiler, Thermostat Control, and Differential Vacuum Pump, all
    for more effective heating systems in large buildings.
    He created the heating systems for New York City’s famous Radio City Music Hall and Rockefeller Center.
    Mr. Crostwait was issued 39 U.S. patents and 80 international patents.

    Alexander Miles
    In 1887, he received a patent for inventing improvements to the Elevator 371207.
    He
    developed an automatic mechanism that improved the method of opening
    and closing the elevator door, and he improved the opening and closing
    of the elevator shaft when an elevator was not on that floor.
    Prior to his improvements, the opening and closing of the elevator shaft had to be done manually.
    In 2007, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his Elevator.

    Jan Ernst Matzeliger
    In 1883, he received a patent for inventing improvements to the Lasting-Machine 274207.
    Previously,
    someone had to manually attach the upper part of a shoe to the sole by a
    “hand laster”, a skilled one could produce 50 pairs in a 10-hour day.
    This machine produced between 150-700 pairs of shoes a day, cutting shoe
    prices across the nation in half.
    In 2006, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his Lasting-Machine.
    Mr. Matzeliger was issued 5 U.S. patents.
    Mr. Matzeliger is an immigrant from Suriname in South America.

    Beulah Louise Henry
    In 1912, she received a patent for inventing improvements to the Ice-Cream Freezer 1037762.
    This was an air-tight container for ice cream, which resulted in more stable temperatures.
    Patent
    Quote: “This invention relates to ice cream freezers, and has for an
    object to provide a freezer which will include a freezing chamber
    surrounded by an insulating walled structure so that a freezing
    temperature in the freezing chamber can be effectively retained to
    effect a rapid freezing of the cream with a minimum expenditure of ice.
    Another object of the invention is to provide a freezer that can be
    readily and effectively used as a water cooler.”
    In 2006, she was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for her Ice-Cream Freezer.
    Ms. Henry was issued 49 U.S. patents but had more than 110 inventions.

    Lonnie Johnson
    In 1986, he received a patent for inventing the Squirt Gun 4591071, aka the “Super Soaker”.
    This
    invention relates to “utilizing compressed gas as a means for
    pressurizing water to effect a continuous stream of high velocity
    waterflow [sic] from a nozzle is common practice. However, the
    embodiment of this principle in a handheld to squirt gun having a
    futuristic space ray gun appearance and including sound effects is
    novel.”
    In 1991, he licensed the Super Soaker to the Larami
    Corporation, which generated over $200 million in retail sales and
    became the top selling toy in America.
    Over the years, Super Soaker sales have totaled more than a billion dollars.
    Mr. Johnson was issued more than 100 U.S. patents.

    Norman Bucknor
    He is a prolific patent holder who has invented a family of Transmissions (hybrid) for GM.
    Mr. Bucknor was issued more than 198 U.S. patents.

    Patrick Usoro
    He is a prolific patent holder who has invented a family of Transmissions (hybrid) for GM.
    Mr. Usoro was issued over 175 U.S. patents.
    In 1996, he was awarded the Black Engineer of the Year.
    Mr. Usoro is an immigrant from Nigeria in Africa.

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    Electrical Pioneers:

    Granville T. Woods
    In 1884, he received a patent for inventing improvements to the Telephone-Transmitter 308817.
    This technology conducted sound over an electrical current carrying a louder and more distinct sound over a longer distance, which far surpassed any other model in use at the time. Without this technology it is virtually impossible to make long distance phone calls. The physical properties by which the device operated are still employed in modern telephones.
    He later sold the patent rights to the American Bell Telephone Company.
    In 1885, he received a patent for inventing the Apparatus for Transmission of Messages by Electricity 315368, aka the “Telegraphony”.
    This device was a combination of both a telegraph and telephone, which could transmit both oral and signal messages.
    This technology allowed for the transmission of messages by electricity – meaning that this equipment is the foundation for being able to send messages via Electronic mail (email), and or Short Message Service (SMS).
    Patent Quote: “In the the ordinary mode of sending telegraphic messages the operator uses a “finger-key,” whose duties are to irregularly make and break the circuit, or to vary the tension of the electric current traversing the “line-wire,” the “key” being operated by the varying pressure of the operator’s finger. This key as ordinarily constructed cannot be operated in any other way or for any other purpose than that just mentioned. The message thus transmitted is received by an instrument known as a “receiver” or “sounder,” which causes audible atmospheric vibrations in response to the pulsations of the electric current traversing the line-wire.”
    “It is well know that both the sender and the recipient of the messages thus transmitted must be skilled operators. It is also well known that such sounder as usually constructed will not respond to very weak electric currents, such as are used in telephony. My system (called by me “Telegraphony”) entirely overcomes the failings of the ordinary key and sounder and has a wide range of usefulness, it being capable of use by inexperienced persons, for if, for example, the operator cannot read or write the Morse signals, he has only (by means of a suitable switch) to “cut” the battery out of the main-line circuit and cut it into a local circuit, and then speak near the key. This having been done, the sounder at the receiving-station will cause the air to vibrate in unison with the electric pulsations that traverse the line-wire. The person at the receiving-station will thus receive the message as articulate speech.”
    He later sold the patents rights to the American Bell Telephone Company.
    In 1887, he received a patent for inventing improvements to the Induction Telegraph System 373915, aka the “Synchronous Multiplex Railway Telegraph”.
    This allowed train stations to communicate with moving trains, preventing countless accidents and fatalities, and was quickly adopted by companies in the industry.
    In 2006, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his Induction Telegraph System.
    Patent Quote: “My invention relates to systems of electric between two moving railway trains or vehicles, or between two moving railway trains or vehicles, or between the same and a fixed station or stations, and transmits the signals to and from the vehicle by means of induction, whereby an electric impulse upon the line-conductor (which, for the purposes of my invention, is formed as a helix surrounding a magnetic core, as in the case of the ordinary electro-magnet [sic]) is caused to produce a corresponding impulse upon the similarly-arranged helix carried by the vehicle in close proximity to the line-conductor, the arrangement being such that the current flowing through the line-helix will pass along one side of the suspended and movable helix, and, returning, will pass along the other side of the suspended helix. The line-conductor may be placed in any convenient position, either upon the ground or upon suitable supports elevated over the roadway, the movable helix being carried by the vehicle in convenient proximity thereto. By this system suitable inductive proximity of the line-magnet and the suspended magnet is all that is required, direct electrical connection between the helices of said respective magnets being unnecessary.”
    This technology was used for multiplexing (sending multiple signals or streams of information on a carrier at the same time in the form of a single, complex signal and then recovering the separate signals at the receiving end) wireless cab signal system for railways.
    He defeated Thomas Edison’s law suit that challenged this patent, and turned down Edison’s offer to make him a partner. Thereafter, Woods was often known as “the black Edison.”
    He later sold the patent rights to the American Bell Telephone Company.
    In 1989, he received a patent for inventing improvements to the Automatic Safety Cut-Out for Electric Circuits 395533.
    Patent Quote: “My invention relates to electric conduction systems employing conductors carried above the earth [sic] upon supports, in which the breakage or “sagging” of the conductor between supports is liable to bring the wire into contact with persons or animals, thereby endangering life; and its object is to furnish a remedy for such dangerous conditions.”
    In 1891, he received a patent for inventing the Electrical-Railway System 463020, aka the “Multiple Distributing Station System”.
    This marked the first railway system that had no exposed wires, pulleys, secondary batteries, or slotted causeway – all previously necessary for electric railways.
    Patent Quote: “The object of this invention is to construct a cheap, simple, and efficient electric-railway system adapted as well for existing lines of street-railways as for new lines and which entirely dispenses with overhead wires or with exposed feeders and does not require conduits or openings in the street for the purpose of connecting with the main feeder.”
    In 1892, he completed an Underground Electrical-Railway System at Coney Island’s Steeple Chase Park in Brooklyn, NY.
    According to the Brooklyn Historic Railway Association, “This system allowed for the wireless transmission of electric power, utilizing principles of electromagnetic induction instead of overhead wires, 3rd rail or any other physical contact point.”
    His electrical-railway system actually anticipated today’s experimental “Linear Induction Motor”.
    In 1893, he received a patent for inventing improvements to the Electric-Railway Conduit 509065.
    This was the first system to use rails instead of wires.
    Patent Quote: “The object of this invention is to provide a system that may be economically installed and operated and in which as of current due to leakage, as well as the element of danger where high tension currents are employed, may be practically eliminated. To this end I employ a conduit of any ordinary construction that may as usual be located between the rails of the track.”
    This Electric-Railway Conduit system was used for wireless streetcar transit operation in Manhattan, Washington D.C., and other cities.
    His Electric-Railway Conduit system actually anticipated today’s Wireless local area network (WLAN).
    In 1896, he received a patent for inventing improvements to the System of Electrical Distribution 569443, aka the “Dimmer”.
    In 1899, he received a patent for inventing an Amusement Apparatus 639692, aka the “Figure 8 Roller Coaster”.
    In 1909, his amusement apparatus debuted at Coney Island’s Steeple Chase Park in Brooklyn, NY.
    In 2008, he was inducted into the Coney Island Hall of Fame for his contributions to Coney Island’s Amusement Park.
    In 1904 and 1905, he and his brother (Lyates Woods) received two patents for inventing improvements to the Railway-Brake Apparatus 755825 and 795243, aka the “Air-Brake”.
    Patent Quote: “The object of our invention is to provide effective and reliable means whereby the motion of a power-driven vehicle or train of cars may be controlled by the motorman or driver, or in case of the sudden disability of the motorman said car or train of cars will be automatically stopped, or said car or train of cars may be brought to rest by any passenger and from any position in the said car or train of cars.”
    He later sold both patent rights to the Westinghouse Air Brake Company.
    In 1906, he and his brother (Lyates Woods) received two patents for inventing improvements to the Safety Apparatus for Railroads 833193 and 837022, aka Dead man’s switch.
    Patent Quote: “The object of our invention is to provide a new and improved construction of engineer’s air-brake valve and other apparatus, whereby the driving power will be cut off and the brakes will be instantly and automatically applied throughout the train when the hand of the engineer ceases to control the engineer’s valve – that is to say, the lever of the engineer’s valve must always be held by the hand to prevent the efforts of a spring or other suitable power from causing the automatic setting of the brakes.”
    They later sold both patent rights to the General Electric Company.
    Mr. Woods was issued more than 60 U.S. patents.

    Jesse Russell
    He is “the father of digital cellular” technology. His digital cellular base station patent made possible the “mobile” digital cell phone.
    In 1992, while serving as Chief Wireless Architect at AT&T, he received a patent for inventing improvements to the Base Station for Mobile Radio Telecommunications Systems 5084869.
    This marked the world’s first Digital Cellular Base Station that enabled new digital services for cellular mobile users.
    Originally, cell phones were “analog” (1983), and not “digital” (1988), and could not support mobility and a significant number of users. His digital base station provided the capability to enable mobility, support significant number of users and support multiple communication devices. Today’s bandwidth dependent mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets operate with the ease and efficiency because of his innovative work in digital communications technology.
    In 1992, he was awarded the Black Engineer of the Year for best “Technical Contributions in Digital Cellular and Microcellular Technology”.
    In 1995, he was inducted into the U.S.National Academy of Engineering by U.S. President William J. Clinton for his “innovative work in Digital Cellular Communications Technology.”
    He is currently serving as Chairman and CEO of incNETWORKS, Inc.
    incNETWORKS is a broadband wireless communications company in Long Beach, N.J., focused on 4th Generation (4G) Broadband Wireless Communications Technologies, Networks and Services.
    incNETWORKS is the world’s first company to successfully create a standard-based version of 4G wireless networks to offer a broadband wireless architecture with quality of service characteristics that make it suitable for mobile voice, video, and Internet services.
    He continues to innovate in the emerging next generation broadband wireless communication technologies, products, networks, and services including “Mobile Cloud Computing”, which are shaping the forefront of the 4G communication industry.
    Mr. Russell was issued more than 75 U.S. patents with an additional 25 pending.

    Jerry Lawson
    In 1976, while serving as Chief Hardware Engineer and Director of Engineering at Fairchild Semiconductor’s Video Game Division, he designed the electronics for the Fairchild Video Entertainment System, later renamed the Fairchild Channel F.
    This marked the first programmable video game console to use interchangeable game cartridges, aka ROM cartridges.
    Previous game machines like Atari’s, Pong, and Magnavox Odyssey in 1972, had all their games built into the hardware.
    In 2011, he was awarded an Industry Pioneer by the International Game Developer’s Association.
    His design set the standard for video game consoles since its introduction.

    Lewis Howard Latimer
    In 1882, he received a patent for inventing improvements to the Process of Manufacturing Carbons 252386 for light bulbs.
    His idea was to protect the filaments in a cardboard envelope preventing the carbon from breaking or changing shape during the intense lighting process.
    The significance of these improvements allowed for a reduction in time to produce and an increase in quality, his process set the standard for more than 20 years.
    In 2006, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his Process of Manufacturing Carbons.
    Mr. Latimer was issued 7 U.S. patents.

    Walter Lincoln Hawkins
    He helped make possible “universal telephone service”.
    In 1961, he became 1 of 3 individuals who received a patent for co-inventing the Alpha Olefin Hydrocarbons Stabilized with Carbon Black and a Carbocyclic Thiother 2967845, aka “Polymer Cable Sheath”.
    In 2010, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his Alpha Olefin Hydrocarbons Stabilized with Carbon Black and a Carbocyclic Thiother.
    This material is a plastic, containing a chemical additive composed of carbon and antioxidants that prevents the material from deteriorating, even in severe hot or cold weather conditions.
    Up until about 1950, telephone cables were coated with a costly as well as toxic lead-based material. The British replaced this material with polyethylene but, the plastic coating became brittle and breakable very quickly in sunlight.
    The polymer became widely used in the 1960′s as an inexpensive, light weight, durable, and safe coating for telecommunications wire, thus, making the use of lead-based coated material obsolete.
    Today polymer is used to protect optical fiber cable.
    In 1975, he became the first African-American inducted into the U.S.National Academy of Engineering.
    In 1992, he was awarded the National Medal of Technology and Innovation, the nation’s highest honor for innovators by U.S. President George H. W. Bush.
    Mr. Hawkins was issued 18 U.S. patents and 129 international patents.

    Otis Boykin
    In 1959, he received a patent for inventing the first Wire Type Precision Resistor 2891227.
    This resistor was used for radios and televisions sets.
    In 1961, he received a patent for inventing improvements to the Electrical Resistor 2972726.
    This new and improved resistor was inexpensive and easy to produce, it was in high demand and quickly incorporated into a number of products, including all IBM computers, guided missile parts, and other electronic devices.
    He also invented a Variable Resistor.
    This resistor is used in all guided missile systems.
    His greatest invention was a Control Unit for the Artificial Cardiac Pacemaker, which uses electrical impulses to maintain a regular heartbeat.
    Mr. Boykins was issued 28 U.S. patents.

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    Mark E. Dean
    He is known as “the man behind the PC” and “America’s high-tech invisible man”.
    In 1979, he was hired by IBM as the chief engineer on the IBM PC project.
    In 1981, he received three of the nine original IBM PC patents.
    In the same year, he helped design the IBM PC/XT keyboard.
    In 1983, he helped design the IBM PC/XT (X-tended Technology).
    In 1984, he became 1 of 3 individuals who received a patent for co-inventing the Composite Video Color Signal Generation from Digital Color Signals 4442428, aka the “Color Graphics Adapter” for the IBM PC.
    This marked the first color graphic card and color computer display standard for the IBM PC.
    In the same year, he helped design the IBM PC/AT (Advanced Technology), which marked the 2nd generation of the IBM PC.
    In 1985, he became 1 of 2 individuals who received a patent for co-inventing the Microcomputer System with Bus Control Means for Peripheral Processing Devices 4528626, aka the “Industry Standard Architecture (ISA)” for the IBM PC/AT.
    This invention allows the use of computer plug-ins like disk drives, speakers, scanners, etc.
    In 1997, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his Microcomputer System with Bus Control Means for Peripheral Processing Devices.
    In 1987, he helped design the IBM PS/2 80, which marked the 3rd generation of the IBM PC.
    In 1988, he helped design the IBM PS/2 70.
    In the same year, he became the first African-American to be named an IBM Fellow, which is the highest technical honor for excellence at the company.
    In 1997, he was awarded the Black Engineer of the Year, Presidents Award.
    In 1998, he directed the team that invented the first 1-Gigahertz RISC processor chip.
    This processor chip contains 1-million transistors capable of computing 1-billion calculations per-second, and has nearly limitless potential.
    In 2000, he was awarded the Black Engineer of the Year.
    In 2004, he directed the team that invented the world’s fastest supercomputer called Blue Gene.
    The Blue Gene is used for computational studies in radio astronomy, protein folding, climate research, cosmology, and drug development.
    There are only four types of the Blue Gene model which are designed to reach unimaginable speeds.
    In 2009, the Blue Gene project was awarded the National Medal of Technology and Innovation, which is the nation’s highest honor for innovators.
    In 2008, the Blue Gene lost its title as the world’s fastest supercomputer to the IBM Roadrunner.
    Dr. Dean was issued more than 40 U.S. patents.

    Kenneth J. Dunkley
    In 1989, he received a patent for inventing the Three-Dimensional Viewing Glasses 4810057.
    Patent Quote: “The present invention relates to devices for viewing two dimensional photographs or images (such as TV or movies) which then appear to the viewer as three-dimensional.”

  • KingTutankhaten

    Technology Pioneers:

    Roy L. Clay, Sr.
    In 1966, he served as director of the first Hewlett-Packard (HP) research and development group, and is a founding member of the HP computer division.
    In 1966, he designed the software for the first HP 16-bit minicomputer 2116A.
    His software marked the first Automatic Test Equipment apparatus. This system automatically tests and diagnoses fault in a sophisticated electronic semiconductor package. This software became the standard for HP desktop computers for more than 20 years.
    This marked the 2nd generation of the original 16-bit minicomputer called the DDP-116, designed by Computer Control Company, Inc. in 1965.
    In 2003, he was inducted into the Silicon Valley Engineering Council’s Hall of Fame for his work at HP’s computer division.
    In 1977, he invented the world’s first Underwriter Laboratories (UL) Listed Dielectric Withstand (Hipot) and Ground Continuity Testers, aka the “Hipot Tester”.
    This innovation set the industry standard in electrical product safety testing by ensuring a product is safe from shock or a fire hazard if there’s a voltage surge from the input power line of the product.
    This device is used by leading manufacturers around the world including IBM, AT&T, HP, Tekronix, Xerox, and others.
    He is the founder and CEO of Rod-L Electronics, the worldwide leader in electrical safety testing equipment, located in Menlo Park, California.

    Clarence Ellis
    In 1969, he became the first African-American to receive a PhD in Computer Science.
    In 1973, he helped design the Graphic User Interface (GUI) while working at Xerox Research Labs in Palo Alto, California.
    He helped develop the concept of Point and Click on graphic symbols called icons to start a computer program or to issue a command instead of typing in complicated computer codes for the Xerox Alto Computer, which is one of the first computers designed for individual use (though not as a home computer), making it arguably what is now called a personal computer (PC).
    His work helped to develop the basic software used by every PC in the world including IBM, Apple, Microsoft Windows, and others.

  • KingTutankhaten

    Super: “an individual, thing, or property that exceeds customary norms or levels.”

    Genius: “is something or someone embodying exceptional intellectual ability, creativity, or originality, typically to a degree that is associated with the achievement of unprecedented insight.”

    This is a list of 60 African-American super-geniuses that have changed the world forever.

    See: Google patents for confirmation on claims.

    In 1973, the National Inventors Hall of Fame was founded, and the first African-Americans inducted were George Washington Carver and Percy Lavon Julian in 1990.

    Patent Pioneers:

    Mary Dixon Kies
    In 1809, she received a patent for inventing improvements for Weaving Straw with Silk or Thread 1041x.
    Her technique greatly reduced the cost of making straw bonnets – most women worked in the fields and wore bonnets. This method became the standard process for more than a decade.
    In 2006, she was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for her method of Weaving Straw with Silk or Thread.
    Unfortunately, the original patent file was destroyed (along with many others) in a fire at the United States Patent Office in 1836.
    She became the first woman and African-American to apply for and receive a patent for an invention in the United States of America.

    Thomas L. Jennings
    In 1821, he received a patent for inventing improvements to Dry Scouring for Clothes 3306x, aka “Dry Cleaning”.
    His process would dry clothes on a rack with heat from a stove. This method was unique because previous driers known as “ventilators” were used over open flames and caused fires.
    This method would become the standard process for more than 70 years.
    Unfortunately, the original patent file was destroyed (along with many others) in a fire at the United States Patent Office in 1836.
    He became the first African-American man to receive a patent for an invention in the United States of America.

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